China, officially the People’s Republic of China, (capital Beijing) is a sovereign state located in East Asia. It is the world’s most populous country. China is the world’s second-largest country by land area, and either the third or fourth largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement.
China’s coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers (9,000 mi) long, and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas.
Chinese civilization stretches back until at least the 3rd millennium BC, the country being ruled by a series of dynasties until the Qing (or Manchu) dynasty was overthrown by Sun Yat-Sen in 1911; China was proclaimed a republic the following year. After World War II, the Kuomintang government of Chiang Kai-shek was overthrown by the Communists under Mao Zedong, and the People’s Republic of China was declared in 1949. Market-oriented reforms were introduced in the last quarter of the twentieth century.
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